A peptide is a chemical compound with two or more amino acids associated with each other through peptide bonds. This peptide bond is formed between 2 amino acids as a carboxyl group. The C-terminus of an amino acid reacts with the N-terminus of another amino acid through a condensation reaction. The result of this bond is the CO-NH bond and creates an amide molecule or peptide.
Peptide is a Greek word that means “to digest.” Take note that peptides are an essential part of biochemistry and nature. Peptides can naturally happen in animals and the human body. Today, peptides are being studied in the laboratory for their future in pharmaceutical development and health.
Formation of Peptides
Peptides can be formed in two ways. It can be formed in the laboratory synthetically and within the body naturally. The body can produce peptides organically like non-ribosomal ad ribosomal peptides. In the laboratory, peptides can be formed through peptide synthesis procedures with synthesis techniques such as solid-phase peptide synthesis or liquid phase peptide synthesis.
Peptides come with various classes. The classification can depend on how the peptides are produced.
These peptides are formed through mRNA translation. They serve as signaling molecules and hormones in organisms.
It can include vasoactive intestinal peptides, tachykinin peptides, pancreatic peptides, opioid peptides, and calcitonin peptides. Usually, ribosomal peptides undergo the proteolysis process to reach their mature form.
This classification of peptides is formed through peptide-specific enzymes. They are usually cyclic instead of linear. Non-ribosomal peptides can usually occur in fungi, plants, and one-celled organisms.
Milk peptides can be formed through milk proteins. Milk peptides are also developed through enzymatic breakdown from proteinases or digestive enzymes from lactobacilli on milk fermentation. There are also peptones which are peptides from animal meat or milk which was digested through proteolytic digestion.
Peptide fragments can be produced from enzymatic degradation in a laboratory on a controlled sample. It can also naturally happen with natural degradation effects.
There are Peptides for sale available in the market.
What are the Benefits of Peptides?
Peptides can have several benefits, including reducing inflammation, kill microbes, lower high blood pressure, avoid the formation of blood clots, enhance immune function, and as antioxidants.
It is also said that peptides are beneficial for wound healing and lower the aging process. It also helps to build muscle mass and strength, and more.
Using peptides can depend on the brand and type of peptide. Ensure to follow the instructions on the package as you take peptide supplements or use topical peptide lotions or creams. If reactions happen, you can immediately consult a doctor.
Some of the essential peptide terms include:
Amino acids – peptides contain amino acids. These are molecules that have carboxyl and amine, functional groups.
Peptide bond – a covalent bond produced between two amino acids as carboxyl group of an amino acid reacts with an amino group of other amino acids.
Cyclic peptides – peptides wherein the amino acid sequence creates a ring structure and not a straight chain.